01st Jun 2012

Vincenzo Ficarra, Giacomo Novara, Thomas E. Ahlering, Anthony Costello, James A. Eastham, Markus Graefen, Giorgio Guazzoni, Mani Menon, Alexandre Mottrie, Vipul R. Patel, Henk Van der Poel, Raymond C. Rosen, Ashutosh K. Tewari, Timothy G. Wilson

robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP)RRP, LRP

BACKGROUND: Although the initial robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) series showed 12-mo potency rates ranging from 70% to 80%, the few available comparative studies did not permit any definitive conclusion about the superiority of this technique when compared with retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP) and laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP). OBJECTIVES: The aims of this systematic review were (1) to evaluate the current prevalence and the potential risk factors of erectile dysfunction after RARP, (2) to identify surgical techniques able to improve the rate of potency recovery after RARP, and (3) to perform a cumulative analysis of all available studies comparing RARP versus RRP or LRP. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A literature search was performed in August 2011 using the Medline, Embase, and Web of Science databases. Only comparative studies or clinical series including >100 cases reporting potency recovery outcomes were included in this review. Cumulative analysis was conducted using Review Manager v.4.2 software designed for composing Cochrane Reviews (Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, UK). EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: We analyzed 15 case series, 6 studies comparing different techniques in the context of RARP, 6 studies comparing RARP with RRP, and 4 studies comparing RARP with LRP. The 12- and 24-mo potency rates ranged from 54% to 90% and from 63% to 94%, respectively. Age, baseline potency status, comorbidities index, and extension of the nerve-sparing procedure represent the most relevant preoperative and intraoperative predictors of potency recovery after RARP. Available data seem to support the use of cautery-free dissection or the use of pinpointed low-energy cauterization. Cumulative analyses showed better 12-mo potency rates after RARP in comparison with RRP (odds ratio [OR]: 2.84; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.46-5.43; p=0.002). Only a nonstatistically significant trend in favor of RARP was reported after comparison with LRP (OR: 1.89; p=0.21). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of potency recovery after RARP is influenced by numerous factors. Data coming from the present systematic review support the use of a cautery-free technique. This update of previous systematic reviews of the literature showed, for the first time, a significant advantage in favor of RARP in comparison with RRP in terms of 12-mo potency rates.

24th Feb 2012

  Ashutosh Tewari a,*, Prasanna Sooriakumarana,b, Daniel A. Blochc, Usha Seshadri-Kreadend, April E. Hebert d, Peter Wiklund b  

Radical prostatectomy (RP), RALP, LRP, ORP

CONTEXT: Radical prostatectomy (RP) approaches have rarely been compared adequately with regard to margin and perioperative complication rates. OBJECTIVE: Review the literature from 2002 to 2010 and compare margin and perioperative complication rates for open retropubic RP (ORP), laparoscopic RP (LRP), and robot-assisted LRP (RALP). EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Summary data were abstracted from 400 original research articles representing 167,184 ORP, 57,303 LRP, and 62,389 RALP patients (total: 286,876). Articles were found through PubMed and Scopus searches and met a priori inclusion criteria (eg, surgery after 1990, reporting margin rates and/or perioperative complications, study size>25 cases). The primary outcomes were positive surgical margin (PSM) rates, as well as total intra- and perioperative complication rates. Secondary outcomes included blood loss, transfusions, conversions, length of hospital stay, and rates for specific individual complications. Weighted averages were compared for each outcome using propensity adjustment. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: After propensity adjustment, the LRP group had higher positive surgical margin rates than the RALP group but similar rates to the ORP group. LRP and RALP showed significantly lower blood loss and transfusions, and a shorter length of hospital stay than the ORP group. Total perioperative complication rates were higher for ORP and LRP than for RALP. Total intraoperative complication rates were low for all modalities but lowest for RALP. Rates for readmission, reoperation, nerve, ureteral, and rectal injury, deep vein thrombosis, pneumonia, hematoma, lymphocele, anastomotic leak, fistula, and wound infection showed significant differences between groups, generally favoring RALP. The lack of randomized controlled trials, use of margin status as an indicator of oncologic control, and inability to perform cost comparisons are limitations of this study. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis demonstrates that RALP is at least equivalent to ORP or LRP in terms of margin rates and suggests that RALP provides certain advantages, especially regarding decreased adverse events.

06th Sep 2011

Trinh QD, Schmitges J, Sun M, Shariat SF, Sukumar S, Tian Z, Bianchi M, Sammon J, Perrotte P, Rogers CG, Graefen M, Peabody JO, Menon M, Karakiewicz PI

radical prostatectomy

Study Type: Therapy (case series) Level of Evidence:4 What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Adverse outcomes after radical prostatectomy are more often recorded in the elderly. In the USA, elderly patients undergoing radical prostatectomy are treated at institutions where suboptimal outcomes are recorded. OBJECTIVE: To assess the rate of adverse outcomes after open radical prostatectomy (ORP) in the elderly and to examine the effect of annual hospital caseload (AHC) and academic institutional status on adverse outcomes in these of patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Within the Health Care Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample, we focused on ORPs performed between 1998 and 2007. Subsequently, we restricted to patients aged greater than equal 75 years.  In both datasets, we examined transfusion rates, intra-operative and postoperative complication rates, and in-hospital mortality rates.  Stratification was performed according to AHC tertiles and academic status.  Multivariable logistic regression analyses were fitted. RESULTS: Of 115 554 ORP patients, 2109 (1.8%) were aged greater than equal 75 years.  In multivariable analyses performed in the entire cohort, elderly age increased homologous blood transfusion rates (P < 0.001), intra-operative (P= 0.001) and postoperative (P < 0.001) complication rates, and the mortality rate (P= 0.007).  Most elderly were treated at low or intermediate AHC (68.5%) and non-academic centres (56.2%).  Within the elderly cohort, intra-operative (2.9%) and postoperative (22.2%) complications tended to be highest at low AHC institutions compared to institutions of intermediate (2.7% and 17.4%) and high AHC (1.7% and 14.5%). Similarly, intra-operative (2.7% vs 2.1%) and postoperative complications (19.1% vs 13.9%) tended to be higher at non-academic than academic centres.  In multivariable analyses performed in the elderly subgroup, low AHC predicted higher intra-operative complications and higher homologous transfusions, whereas non-academic status predicted higher postoperative complications. CONCLUSIONS: Adverse outcomes are more often recorded in the elderly.  Most elderly are treated at institutions where suboptimal outcomes are recorded.

17th Sep 2010

Mani Menon, Mahendra Bhandari, Nilesh Gupta, Zhaoli Lane, James O. Peabody, Craig G. Rogers, Jesse Sammons, Sameer A. Siddiqui a, Mireya Diaz a,c

BackgroundThere is a paucity of data on long-term oncologic outcomes for patients undergoing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) for prostate cancer (PCa).ObjectiveTo evaluate oncologic outcomes in patients undergoing RARP at a high-volume tertiary center, with a focus on 5-yr biochemical recurrence–free survival (BCRFS).Design, setting, and participantsThe study cohort consisted of 1384 consecutive patients with localized PCa who underwent RARP between September 2001 and May 2005 and had a median follow-up of 60.2 mo. No patient had secondary therapy until documented biochemical recurrence (BCR). BCR was defined as a serum prostate-specific antigen ?0.2 ng/ml with a confirmatory value. BCRFS was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Event–time distributions for the time to failure were compared using the log-rank test. Univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to determine variables predictive of BCR.InterventionAll patients underwent RARP.MeasurementsBCRFS rates were measured.Results and limitationsThis cohort of patients had moderately aggressive PCa: 49.0% were D’Amico intermediate or high risk on biopsy; however, 60.9% had Gleason 7–10 disease, and 25.5% had greater than equal T3 disease on final pathology. There were 189 incidences of BCR (31 per 1,000 person years of follow-up) at a median follow-up of 60.2 mo (interquartile range [IQR]: 37.2–69.7). The actuarial BCRFS was 95.1%, 90.6%, 86.6%, and 81.0% at 1, 3, 5, and 7 yr, respectively. In the patients who recurred, median time to BCR was 20.4 mo; 65% of BCR incidences occurred within 3 yr and 86.2% within 5 yr. On multivariable analysis, the strongest predictors of BCR were pathologic Gleason grade 8–10 (hazard ratio [HR]: 5.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.99–9.65; p < 0.0001) and pathologic stage T3b/T4 (HR: 2.71; 95% CI, 1.67–4.40; p < 0.0001).ConclusionsIn a contemporary cohort of patients with localized PCa, RARP confers effective 5-yr biochemical control.

03rd Sep 2010

Galfano A, Ascione A, Grimaldi S, Petralia G, Strada E, Bocciardi AM.


Robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) has been disseminated widely, changing the knowledge of surgical anatomy of the prostate. The aim of our study is to demonstrate the feasibility of a new, purely intrafascial approach. The Bocciardi approach for RALP passes through the Douglas space, following a completely intrafascial plane without any dissection of the anterior compartment, which contains neurovascular bundles, Aphrodite's veil, endopelvic fascia, the Santorini plexus, pubourethral ligaments, and all of the structures thought to play a role in maintenance of continence and potency. In this case series, we present our first five patients undergoing the Bocciardi approach for RALP. We report the results of our technique in three patients following two unsuccessful attempts. No perioperative major complication was recorded. Pathologic stage was pT2c in two patients and pT2a in one patient, with no positive surgical margin. The day after removing the catheter, two of the three patients reported use of a single, small safety pad, and one patient was discharged without any pad. One patient reported an erection the day after removing the catheter. The anatomic rationale for better results compared with traditional RALP is strong, but well-designed studies are needed to evaluate the advantages of our technique.